TDR / TDT Analysis
The PicoScope 9311 and 9312 scopes include a built-in differential step generator for time domain reflectometry and time domain transmission measurements. This feature can be used to characterize transmission lines, printed circuit traces, connectors and cables with as little as 1.5 cm resolution. The PicoScope 9312 is supplied with external tunnel diode pulse heads that generate positive and negative 200 mV pulses with 40 ps system rise time. The PicoScope 9311 generates large-amplitude differential pulses with 60 ps system rise time directly from its front panel and is suited to TDR/TDT applications where the reflected or transmitted signal is small.
The PicoScope 9300 Series TDR/TDT models include source deskew with 1 ps resoution and comprehensive calibration, reference plane and measurement functions. Voltage, impedance or reflection coefficient (ρ) can be plotted against time or distance. The PicoScope 9311 and 9312 are supplied with a comprehensive set of calibrated accessories to support your TDR/TDT measurements. These include cables, signal dividers, adaptors, attenuator and reference load and short.
Optional 9.5 GHz Optical Input
The PicoScope 9321 includes a built-in, precision optical-to-electrical converter. With the converter output routed to one of the scope inputs (optionally through an SMA pulse shaping filter), the PicoScope 9321 can analyze standard optical communications signals such as OC48/STM16, 4.250 Gb/s Fibre Channel and 2xGB Ethernet. The scope can perform eye pattern measurements with automatic measurement of optical parameters including extinction ratio, S/N ratio, eye height and eye width. With its integrated clock recovery module, the scope is usable to 11.3 Gb/s. The converter input accepts both single-mode (SM) and multimode (MM) fibers and has a wavelength range of 750 to 1650 nm.
SMA Bessel-Thomson pulse-shaping filters
A range of Bessel-Thomson filters is available for standard frequencies. These filters are essential for accurate characterization of signals emerging from an optical transmission system. The first eye pattern, above left, shows the ringing typical of an unequalized O/E converter output at 622 Mb/s. The second eye pattern, above right, shows the result of connecting the 622 Mb/s B-T filter. This is an accurate representation of the signal that an equalized optical receiver would see, enabling the PicoScope 9321 to display correct measurements.
A histogram is a probability distribution that shows the distribution of acquired data from a source within a user–definable histogram window. The information gathered by the histogram is used to perform statistical analysis on the source.
Histograms can be constructed on waveforms on either the vertical or horizontal axes. The most common use for a vertical histogram is measuring and characterising noise on displayed waveforms, while the most common use for a horizontal histogram is measuring and characterising jitter on displayed waveforms.
The PicoScope 9300 Series scopes quickly measure more than 40 fundamental parameters used to characterize non-return-to-zero (NRZ) signals and return-to-zero (RZ) signals. Up to ten parameters can be measured simultaneously, with statistics also shown. The measurement points and levels used to generate each parameter can be shown dynamically.
Eye diagram analysis can be made even more powerful with the addition of mask testing, as described below. The PicoScope 9000 series also include a 11.3 Gbps pattern sync trigger for averaging eye diagrams.
Eye-diagram masks are used to give a visual indication of deviations from a standard waveform. There is a library of over 150 built-in masks (see specifications), and custom masks can be automatically generated and modified using the graphical editor. A specified margin can be added to any mask to enable stress-testing. The display can be grey-scaled or colour-graded to aid in analyzing noise and jitter in eye diagrams. There is also a statistical display showing the number of failures in both the original mask and the margin.
PicoScope 9300 Series PC Oscilloscopes - Features
- 20 GHz (17.5 ps) bandwidth
- 1 MS/s sample rate to 32 kS store
- 64 fs, 15 THz effective sample rate
- 14 GHz prescaled & 2.5 GHz direct trigger
- Pattern sync trigger of length 7 to 223-1
- 1.8 ps typical rms jitter
- 16 bit ADC resolution
Ask for PicoScope 9300 detailed specification.